Publish Time:2014-07-30 08:00:00Source:WTCF

【Introduction】:The Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg lies in the North German plain on the lower reaches of the Elbe, around 100 kilometres the river’s estuary on the North Sea

City Introduction

Hamburg officially Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg (Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg), is the second largest city in Germany, with a population of over 1.7 million people.On the river Elbe, Hamburg is a major port and a global service, media, logistics and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis, Beiersdorf, and Unilever. The radio and television broadcaster NDR, Gruner + Jahr (Europe's largest printing and publishing firm), and Spiegel are also based in Hamburg.

History and Culture

The initial settlement area was formed along Alster River (known as “Ham” in ancient Saxons), near the estuary of Elbe River. In 830 B.C., the Holy Rome Empire once established a town here called “Hammaburg”. In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric by Ansgar, the Apostle of the North. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1100s, Elbe River become more important. Trading embraced a rapid development in northern Europe. In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of an Imperial Free City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. After 1200s, a free trade alliance, Hanseatic League, was established between Hamburg and North German ports. Cuxhaven near the Elbe estuary became the external port of Hamburg. In 1520s, Hamburg was converted to Lutheran Church and accepted Protestant refugees from Holland and France. At that time, it was ruled by Denmark and also part of the Holy Rome Empire; in 1768, Denmark accepted it as an Imperial Free City.

Natural Environment

Hamburg is on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the north-east. It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster ("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn and Nigehörn, 100 kilometres (60 mi) away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of the city of Hamburg.The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land (old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres (381 ft) AMSL.


Hamburg has an oceanic climate (Cfb) with long sunshine duration and an average temperature of about 28℃ in summer. However, Hamburg is well-known for its changeable weather. Particularly in Spring and Autumn, rainy and sunny weather will alternate several times in a single day, so an umbrella is a must for travelling in Hamburg.

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