404 Not Found

404 Not Found

Home> Destinations> Europe> Moscow> Overview


Updated: 2014-07-29 / (moscow.info)





City Introduction

Moscow , is the capital of Russia. This city is huge, beautiful, complex, enigmatical, and cannot be embodied in a few words. Red Kremlin Palace wall and tower gleam gold in the sunset, the cobbled road on Red Square experienced many war stories, and multicolored onion-dome churches are worth watching for times; when the lamps light up, Tverskaya Street becomes a boisterous vehicle river; in the deep of night, the theater is closed, and the Moscow people walk into the night while speaking and smiling because they have not given full expression; in the four seasons, there are different scenes... No matter how many times you have come here, every moment of Moscow might be very surprising to you, and probably you cannot express it with your efforts in your whole life.





History and Culture

It is generally considered that Moscow was initially built in 1147. Then in 1156, Grand Duke Yuri Dolgoruki consolidated the defense measures in Moscow, and thus Moscow got its urban prototype. In 1276, the first Grand Duke Daniel of Moscow established Moscow as the capital. From 1237 to 1480, Moscow was ruled by Golden Horde, one of the subsidiary empires under the Mongol Empire. In the 14th century, the Russians took Moscow as the center, gathered together to launch the war against the rule of the Mongolian nobles, and unified Russia in the 15th century as a centralized feudalist country. Moscow became the capital of Russia. In 1700, Peter I moved the capital to Saint Petersburg. In 1917, the October Revolution led by Lenin succeeded with the establishment of the Soviet power, and Moscow was determined as the USSR capital in 1922.

After the disintegration of USSR in 1991, Moscow became the capital of the Russian Federation. Moscow remains to be the political and cultural center of Russia in several hundred years, so there are many historical architecture and monuments with memorial significance, such as Kremlin Palace, Novodevichy Convent, Moscow University, Triumphal Arch, and Victory Park, which are basically well protected by the government. Moscow is the center of science and technology and culture in Russia, and has many education and scientific research facilities, such as universities and research institutes. National Library of Russia is the second largest library in the world. Moscow is very rich with cultural and artistic activities, for which there are many theaters, cinemas, concert halls, museums and exhibition halls. Moscow Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow Art Theatre, State Central Puppet Theatre, Moscow State Circus, and Russian State Symphony Orchestra enjoy world reputations. Among the art galleries, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Tretyakov Gallery and Arsenal (in Kremlin, actually a small-sized historical museum), and State Historical Museum are the most famous.





Natural Environment

Moscow is situated in 55°-56°N and 37°-38°E, and in the middle of East European Plain, on the bank of Moscow River, and spans Moscow River and its tributary Yauza River. The urban area of Moscow City is surrounded by a 109km expressway, the north-south length is 40km, and west-east length is 30km. It covers more than 1,000km2. Greater Moscow (including the areas within the around-the-city expressway) covers 900km2, and the total area of this city will be 2,511km2 if the peripheral greening belt 1,725km2 is included.





Climate Change

Moscow has the mild and temperate continental humid climate. The extreme phenomena are very frequent. Since December, the long ice and snow melting period starts, with large snowfall, and average annual snow cover period is up to 146 days (early November to middle April). The winter is long and gloomy. Average temperature in January is -10.2°C (lowest -42°C). There are 194 days on average with atmospheric temperature over zero degree throughout a year, and there are 103 days with atmospheric temperature below zero degree. In the summer, the atmospheric temperature might decrease sharply, and it rains continuously. Average temperature in July is 18.1°C (maximum 37°C). Total sunny time throughout a year is 1,568 hours, and annual average precipitation is 190-240mm. The precipitation peak period is August and October, and the least precipitation period is April. In the winter, west, southwest and south winds prevail. From May, northwest and north winds prevail.





Useful Information

I. Customs clearance.

1. According to the Russian customs laws and other laws, the luggage and belongings of the entry and exit tourists shall be allowed for entry or exit through the place with the customs inspection station, and accept the supervision of the customs. The tourists shall make the declaration to the customs as required.  

2. Unless otherwise specified for those exempted persons in the laws, the luggage and belongings of the entry and exit tourists shall be inspected according to the customs regulations before the release. The customs will release the luggage and belongings of the entry and exit tourists in accordance with the rule of self-use and proper quantity.  

3. In case that the tourist carries the articles to be declared, the tourist shall fill in the customs declaration sheet, choose “red channel” for customs clearance, with the declaration of the luggage and articles as true, and request the customs to handle article entry or exit procedures.  

4. In case that the tourist does not carry the articles to be declared, the tourist is not required to fill in the customs declaration sheet, but chooses the “green channel” for customs clearance.  

5. In case that the tourist carries the oil painting for exit, it is required to submit the oil painting identification an release certificate issued by the cultural authority of Russia to the customs.

II. Declaration. The tourists shall make declaration to the customs by filling in the customs declaration sheet when carrying the following articles at the entry and exit.

1. One-time bringing in or taking out the cash, traveler’s cheque and other negotiable securities with the value over USD 10,000;

2. Carrying the self-use articles with total value over Euro 1,500 or weight over 50kg (excluding vehicle), the excess part shall be imposed with the tariff at the rate of 30% of the corresponding value, but no less than Euro 4 per kg.  

3. The adult over 18 years old carrying the alcoholic drink no more than 3L is not required to make declaration, and in case of 3L (exclusive) to 5L, the excess part shall be imposed with the tariff at the rate of Euro 10 per liter according to the customs and tax supervision regulations;

4. Various types of precious metals and jades, except for the ornaments for temporary entry and exit;

5. Cultural relics (painting, sculpture, holy statue, ancient coin, medal, commemorative medal and stamp etc.);

6. radioactive substances;

7. Endangered wild animals, plants and their products;

8. Radio transmission or receiving technical equipment, or other combined and auxiliary machines (such as radio telephone, radio station, radio navigation system, radio finder, CATV system and other equipment, radio frequency over 9Hz);

9. Articles for production and commercial activities;

10. The following articles carried by the adult over 18 years old exceed the quantity limit in the entry and exit: Sturgeon seed 250g; cigar 50 pieces; cigarette 200 pieces; and cut tobacco 250g.

11. Other articles to be declared as specified in the laws.

III. Prohibited for entry and exit. The articles prohibited for entry and exit are listed below,  

1. Various arms and ammunitions, military bullet, military equipment, explosion equipment, nuclear weapon, chemical weapon, bacterial weapon and other large-scale destructive weapon and their raw materials, and the equipment for their research and manufacturing;

2. Narcotic drug, psychotropic substances, various acrid poisons, tools for absorbing opium and marihuana extract, radioactive and explosive substances;

3. The print, film, photo, movie, recording tape, disc, manuscript, gramophone record and other record, picture and forming products harmful to Russian politics, economic benefits, national safety, social order, physical health and morality, as well as the articles for dispersive dissemination of Fascism, and for inciting the society, race, nationality and religious hatreds;

4. Other articles prohibited for entry and exit as stipulated in the laws and regulations.

Information of Embassy and Consulate

Embassy Contact Information

Address: No.6, UL. Druihby, Moscow, Russia,117330

Tel: 095-61168

Email: China_EMB_RV@MFA.gov.cn





Visa Information

Tourist visa.

1. Valid passport and the copy of main pages of the passport.

2. 1 photo (3.5cmx4.5cm).

3. Visa application form (it is required to answer all questions in the form).

4. The original and copy of the letter of invitation issued by a Russian travel agency to confirm the reception of the foreign tourists.

5. The original and copy of the hotel booking order issued by a Russian travel agency.

6. Copy of the round-trip air ticket.

Transit visa.

1. Valid passport and the copy of main pages of the passport.

2. 1 photo (3.5cmx4.5cm).

3. Visa application form (it is required to answer all questions in the form).

4. Valid visa of the destination country.

5. Full-process ticket via Russia to the third country. Application for expedited visa: Time: 9.00-11.00. Visa consulting hotline: 6532-1267, 65321991 (consulting time: Monday to Friday, 14.00-18.00)

Special tips: At present, China and Russia have signed the agreement for mutual visa waiver of group tour. Under the framework of this agreement, the Chinese citizens may go to Russia with visa waiver in the form of group tour.

The conditions to be met:

1. Group tour refers to the tour that 5 to 50 (inclusive) tourists go from a country (Russia-China) to the other country in the form of group for purpose of travel.

2. There are strict requirements for the companies having the right to organize the group tour with visa waiver. The Russian company coordinating the tour with visa waiver is: Russia non-commercial partner- International Tourism Integration Alliance “world without border”, and the China partner is--China Association of Travel Services (CATS).

3. The visa waiver period for the Chinese tourists for tour in Russia is no more than 15 natural days. It shall be particularly mentioned that, The tourists entering the other country through visa waiver channel can only realize the tour in the form of group tour. If any member of the tour group cannot continue the tour with the group, the member shall apply for the visa of the destination country from the competent authority.

Procedures for visa upon arrival after the check-in: No matter whatever visa is held for the tour in Russia, it is required to handle the procedure for visa upon arrival within three (3) working days after arrival in Russia. The person below 18 years old and the tourist planning to leave Russia within three (3) days (public holiday) may be exempted from handling of the procedures for such Russian visa. The check-in hotel and travel agency shall have the obligation to handle the procedures for visa upon arrival for you. If you do not live in the hotel, but hold the business visa, you are required to ask the company inviting you to Russia to handle the procedures for such visa. If you will live in the private residential houses, the person inviting you shall handle the procedures for visa upon arrival.

Special notes: If you hold the tourist visa, it is better not to live in the private residential houses. If you hold the tourist visa and live in the private residential houses, and do not have the visa upon arrival from the hotel, you might be frustrated by the airport security check person at the time of exit, and need to pay certain fees before the customer clearance.





Currency Exchange

The universal currency in Russia is Ruble. Almost all consumption places in Russia only accept Ruble. But in the casino, the Baltic Sea specialty stores and some banks, USD may be used, but there are strict requirements for the look of USD, which shall be free from dirt, fold, and damage, and shall not be made a long time ago.


Orthodox Christianity is the main religious belief for the major nationality (Russian nationality). Though most residents are not pious believers, this does not impede the influence of Orthodox culture and ideology on them. Among the three sects of Christianity, Orthodox Christianity is the most conservative. In the churches and monasteries (excluding those used as the museum), it is required to keep solemn. The women shall wear headscarf and the men shall wear hats, and the clothes shall not be revealing, and the trousers and skirts shall at least extend below the knees. It is also required to avoid placing both hands in the pockets, and crossing both hands on the chest is considered as disrespectful. In some monasteries with strict regulations, the women are even required to wear long skirts before entering the monasteries (which can be generally gotten at the entrance).





Tourism Service Number

Fire service: 01

Police Tel: 02

Ambulance: 03






1. When eating the western foods, the Russians place the knife only when using the spoon. The bread shall be picked by hand. The wine cup shall be held by the right hand. The fruits are generally not peeled

2. When going to visit others in Russia, you’d not arrive before the agreed time, but may be late for several minutes. Do not sit on the bed when going into the room, which is considered very impolite by the Russians.

3. Before smoking in public places, the man shall obtain the consent of the women. When offering cigarette to another person, you’d offer a whole box of cigarettes, instead of one cigarette.

4. Don’t extend your left hand when shaking hands with the familiar persons or friends.

5. The taboo figure for the Russians is 13, and 7 implies happiness and success.

6. Mirror is considered a holy thing in Russia. Be careful not to break the mirror when visiting others or shopping.





Festivals(Important/Historical/Folks Ones)

Victory Day: May 9

Victory Day was the victory day of USSR Great Patriotic War defeating German Fascists. This important commemorative day is maintained since the independence of Russia, and renamed it Victory Day. On this day, Moscow will hold grand assembly and the military parade to celebrate the success. The national leaders will lay wreaths and mourn in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Red Square. In the evening, the hero cities in Russia will fire a salute at the same time to commemorate the dead, and set off fireworks to celebrate the great success in the anti-fascist war.

Three Kings Day: May/June

Three Kings Day is an important festival of Orthodox Christianity, with striking national characteristics. The date is the 50th day after the Easter Day, and it is also called Pentecost or Holy Trinity Day. Every time before this Day, the Russian families clean and tidy the houses inside and outside as well as the streets, and the people will place the birch- the State Tree in the yard, or decorate the houses with birch branches, symbolizing the advent of the summer. The young men and women in Russia usually get together for revelry in this day, holding traditional games and activities of weaving and de-weaving floral hoops with birch branches in a very boisterous manner.

Poetry Festival June 6

Poetry Festival is the national festival to commemorate the great Russian poet Pushkin, taking the birthday of Pushkin (June 6, 1799) as the festival date. The Russians consider Pushkin as the founder for the standardization of the Russian language. He not only achieves extraordinary position in the Russian literary world, but also enjoys the world reputation. Every June 6, diversified celebration activities are held in Moscow and Saint Petersburg where Pushkin lived. The people will watch the works performed by the actors, scholars and poets, and spontaneously join in the team of commemorating this wise man.


I want to comment

Login Create an account
Comments posted above represent reader's views only.
404 Not Found

404 Not Found